The African continent is the second largest continent in the world. It is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea, Suez Canal, Red Sea, and Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Africa has been the site of numerous wars fought among and by various European colonizers, including Britain, France, Portugal, Belgium, and The Netherlands, to name a few. 

Africa in Stevens's Writing:Edit

"Connoisseur of Chaos," line 5 reads, "If the flowers of South Africa were bright." This line refers to the order of unity in the world because if the flowers are bright in both South Africa and Connecticut, then there is inherently unity in the world. What appears to be disorder is actually quite orderly. 

"A Word with Jose Rodriguez-Feo", line 24, includes the line "The sun comes up like news from Africa." 

"Puella Parvula" includes the line "By one caterpillar is great Africa devoured." 

"Owl's Clover, The Greenest Continent" includes a number of lines with references to Africa:

  • line 283: "What god rules over Africa, what shape,"
  • line 333: "That was never the heaven of Africa, which had"
  • line 350: "No god rules over Africa, no throne"
  • line 370: "And Africa, backing into antiquest sun"
  • line 403: "But could the statue stand in Africa?"
  • line 421: "In endless elegies, but in Africa"
  • line 445: "In Africa. The serpent's throne is dust"

According to James Lucas, this poem "might be read as an indictment of European imperialism in Africa.”

Stevens's Letters:Edit

Stevens also refers to Africa in a journal entry dated April 18, 1904: "There are his huge legs, Africa + South America, still, apparently, free."